Expert Opinions

Real estate equity waterfall

Real estate equity waterfall : How they work and what to look for.

Real estate equity waterfall : How they work and what to look for.


Equity Waterfall:

When we buy a property, we choose a combination of equity and debt to fund it. In exchange for their equity investment, our buyers are entitled to the profit and revenue of the real estate. The waterfall determines how earnings and profits are split between you and our investors.

The layout of the waterfall may vary from one contract to another, and it is necessary to look at the specifics of each agreement to evaluate if the separation is equal and fair for all the parties concerned. All information is presented in a contract called an operating agreement, that will be thoroughly and carefully reviewed in anticipation of the allocation of capital to the real estate deal. A waterfall, also known as a waterfall model, is a legal term included in an operating agreement which specifies how money is paid out, where it is paid out, and to when it is paid out during real estate equity transactions.


Waterfall Features:

1. Preferred Returns:

Preferred returns are described as the first claim benefit of the project before the target return is achieved. Preferred return simply generates another cash fund stream, and after the cash flow has been allocated to preferred owners, the remaining stream capital transfers to the next stage and divides as decided.


2. Lookback Provisions:

Lookback clauses are used as cash flow is distributed before the asset is disposed of. If the Limited Partners do not get a guaranteed rate of return decided upon settlement, the General Partner is forced to offer up a percentage of the cash income that was allocated to them before the transaction.


3. Catchup Provisions:

A catch-up clause ensures the Joint Partner 100 percent of the profits of the agreement before the negotiated rate of return is reached. If the specific rate of return has been met, all the residual earnings should go to the General Partner before the defined rate of return has been reached.


Operating agreement:

1. Members:

The partners of the agreement are those who are eligible to benefit from the successful transaction of the real estate. In certain instances, there seems to be a variety of limited partners and general partner. The GP is liable for identifying the opportunity, reviewing it, acquiring it, completing it, and handling the asset until the sale is complete. Usually, the GP will invest a limited portion of the total equity used to fund the deal. The LP’s are purely individual investors. They put their money with the GP and hope to obtain it back, plus a profit, from the cash flow produced by the real estate. The LPs offer the remaining of the capital required to finance the transaction.


2. Capital:

If the cash flow generated by the estate fails to reach the necessary return threshold in a specified period, the cash flow shortfall can or can not be carried forward to the next year. If the investor ‘s financial flows are accumulated, the deficit will continue over the following cycle before the cash flow is adequate to clear it. Cumulative cash holdings are beneficial to the LPs as it ensures that the GP does not obtain any funds before the deficit is erased. When the capital investments are not combined, they are more beneficial to the GP.


3. The Return Hurdles:

Return hurdle is the rates of return at which the capital investment divides between the LP and GP varies. These are designed to enable the GP to manage properties as profitably as practical. The better the profit that the property makes, the more income the GP gets to earn compared to their original investment.


4. Calculating Returns:

The return hurdle can be evaluated using several different approaches, although the two most popular are the multiple of equity and the internal rate of return. The internal cost of the return is the average discount rate, which determines the net present value of the potential cash flows, equal to zero, negative, and positive. The capital multiple is measured as the ratio of the capital received to the money invested and represented as a sum out of the second decimal point.


5. Simple Split:

The final way of deciding the configuration of a waterfall is a straightforward break and might have no desired return to investors. For example, 50 percent of all capital investment and profit is paid to LP and 50 percent of all capital investment is paid to the GP. This is popular in purchases where there might not be a high degree of complexity or a lot of costs, so the goal is to make distributions very easy.

The profitability of an investment from the investor’s point of view of return can rely on well-defined allocations that are properly distributed to the appropriate entities also during the investment holding period.




Oberoi Realty reported a decline in Book Value.

Oberoi Realty reported a decline in Book Value.

Oberoi Realty reported a decline in Book Value.

The Mumbai-based realty developer reported a decline in book value of 18.7%. The book value currently is at Rs.750Cr. which was at Rs.925Cr. in March 2022. The firm sold around 164 units during the last quarter. The volume of the sold houses in the first quarter is nearly 4.01 lakh square feet area which was over 0.92 lakh sq. ft. in the equivalent period for the earlier year.

The net profit of Oberoi Realty  fell by 19% to Rs.232.35 Cr. on a 4.2% increase in net sales to Rs.823.46 Cr. in Q4FY2022. Analysts are bullish on the stock and expect an upside of 40%. The dip in the book value is primarily due to seasonality, stamp due hikes accompanied by an increase in the interest rates. The sales are mainly driven by Elysian, Goregaon, Sky City, Borivali, Eternia, and Enigma in Mulund. The sales will pick up post receipt of OC. Promoters hold a 67.7% stake in the company, while the FIIs own 20.26% and DIIs have around 9.09% as of March 2022.

The trend is likely to continue because of cost inflation and an increase in the cost of capital and favor top developers. Many companies have mitigated cost impact through price hikes in FY23. There could be further increased in the prices, to improve the profit margins. The rise in interest rates was forthcoming. Conversely, despite this, developers assume that it won’t have a significant impact on demand. Any increase in the interest rate above 8% might have to dampen future demand as it is an end-user-driven demand.

The management expects the business to continue for looking at a few large redevelopment projects outside Mumbai. The company has entered into MOU and will confirm once closed. The company is optimistic about launching recent projects in FY2023. A transformed concentration on business development is a positive sign to provide further growth to the company.
It is one of the leading real estate developments Company. The realtor mainly focuses on premium developments in office spaces, hospitality, residential and social.

Sun TV reported a net profit of Rs. 493.99 cr.

Adani Wilmar enters the coveted large-cap category by AMFI


Adani Wilmar enters the coveted large-cap category by AMFI

On 5th July 2022, the Association of Mutual Funds of India (AMFI) declared its semi-annual categorization of stocks which takes into consideration data from January 2022 to June 2022.

The Association of Mutual Funds of India (AMFI) classifies all listed companies into large-cap, mid-cap, and small-cap, on a semi-annual basis. Active equity fund managers build their portfolios based on AMFI’s stock categorization on.

According to the stock categorization by the Association of Mutual Funds of India (AMFI), shares of the Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) and Adani Wilmar were classified as large caps. AMFI has also classified shares of Adani Power, Cholamandalam Investment and Finance, Bank of Baroda, Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL), and Bandhan Bank as large-cap from the mid-cap category.


New large-cap additions:

On the new listing, the market cap for the large-cap is Rs. 475,000 Cr. Stocks such as Adani Power, Cholamandalam Investment and Finance, Bank of Baroda, Hindustan Aeronautics, and Bandhan Bank have been upgraded from mid-cap to large-cap. Currently, the market cap of Adani power is Rs. 1,01,533 Cr. And its market price is Rs. 263. Additionally, Adani Wilmar is also added to the large-cap category with a market cap of Rs. 76,161Cr and CMP Rs. 582. LIC has been upgraded to a large-cap and recorded a market cap of Rs. 444,425 Cr. And the current market price is Rs. 702.65. The market cap of Cholamandalam Investment and Finance (CMP Rs. 643), Bank of Baroda (CMP Rs. 98.65), Hindustan Aeronautics (CMP Rs. 1759), and Bandhan bank (CMP Rs. 273.45) are Rs. 52,822 Cr, Rs. 51,015 Cr, Rs. 58,820 Cr, Rs. 44,046 Cr. respectively.


New mid-cap additions:

AMFI has moved IDBI Bank, HDFC AMC, Godrej Properties, Steel Authority of India (SAIL), Zydus Lifesciences, Jubilant Foodworks, and PB Fintech (Policybazaar) from large-cap to mid-cap category. The market cap for mid-caps is Rs 164 billion. The stocks that have been added mid-cap category are Vedant Fashions with market cap of Rs. 24,335 Cr. and CMP Rs. 1003, and Delhivery with market cap of Rs. 36,772 Cr. and CMP Rs. 507.55. Some stocks have been upgraded from small-cap to mid-cap category. These include Tata Tele Maharashtra, KPR Mill, Tanla Platforms, Poonawala Fincorp, Phoenix Mills, SKF India, and Chambal Fertilizers.


New small-cap additions:

Stocks that have been downgraded from mid-cap category are AGS Transact Technologies, UMA Exports, Veranda Learning, Hariom Pipes, Campus Activewear, Rainbow Children’s Medicare, Prudent Corporate Advisory Services, Venus Pipes, Paradeep are added to the small-cap category. Moreover, Nuvoco Vistas, Aditya Birla AMC, UCO Bank, Natco Pharma, GR Infraproejects, Indiamart Intermesh, Happiest Minds, Ajanta Pharma, and Sanofi India.

To make sure a consistent investment universe for equity mutual fund schemes, AMFI categorizes stocks into large-cap, mid-cap, and small-cap. However, a change in the category doesn’t need to result in inventory entries. The equity fund managers find the newly added and upgraded to large-cap stocks more attractive.

As per the AMFI, about 74% of newly listed stocks were classified as small-cap.

The market cap of the top 100 large-cap stocks declined to 68.8% from 71.4% in the July review. However, the market cap of mid-cap stocks which starts from 101 to 250, increased to 16.9% as against 16.2% in the last review. In the previous review, the market cap of small-cap stocks was 12.29% which increased to 14.3% .


After the stock categorization by AMFI, Adani Wilmar declined by 0.92% i.e from Rs. 582.05 to Rs. 576.70. Similary Adani Power also slipped from 262.75 to Rs. 262.70 which is 0.02%. However, stocks such as LIC, Bank of Baroda, Vedant Fashions have been increased by 0.04%, 0.81%, 1.16% respectively. Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd which is upgraded from mid-cap to large-cap fell by 0.68%. Even though some stocks have been upgraded by the AMFI there is a fall in the some stocks.






Stock Categorization by the AMFI
Image shown is for representation only.

Investing in Real estate.









Behavioural Finance

How co-working spaces can restart post lock down

How co-working spaces can restart post lock down.


Most co-working spaces are now outlining radical steps to reopen their company post lock down, maintaining participants’ health and sanitation at the maximum standard of premises. The risk and uncertainty of COVID-19 pandemic is increasing each day. Although, policy measures are in full swing to stem the dramatic effects of this pandemic, which is quickly tolling human lives. There is also little clarification as to when regular business resumes. This is well known that the lock down cannot stay in effect permanently.


Measures to implement:

When the lock down is ended and firms can function out of their office buildings, several innovative initiatives and procedures will need to be enforced in all working settings to take care of the possibility of contracting the infection. The organizations will have to introduce improved protection procedures higher than a conventional workplace to maintain business-as-usual and guarantee strong organizational interest into co-working work spaces.


Work from home:

Indian IT industry allowed workers to Work From Home according to policy order during the lock down. As a result, nearly 90 percent of workers operated from home, with 65 percent from urban areas and 35 percent from small-town areas. The IT industry moved to the Work from the home system during the lock down very smoothly offering operational continuity to consumers without reducing efficiency or profitability, shocking both major companies and customers. So several workers operating from home amid reports that a substantial portion of them will continue even once the condition returns to normal life. Companies will now need to reconsider their approach particularly in office, interior and architecture real estate, to make the segment more appealing to customers.



When the job continues after the lock down, optimizing the use of workspace is a concern. The workplace will entail large-scale behavioural and physical room changes. Organizations would now take advantage to revaluate their working course of action to give more adaptability to their staff, particularly thinking about the advantages of profitability and commitment, This will push up the demand for co-working space.



Risk reduction must now be an essential part of organizational decision-making, particularly as businesses follow their business continuity plans. Organizations will intend to make decent variety in the geography, expanding the opportunities for adaptable workspaces in Tier 2 and Tier 3. They may likewise observe a piece of organizations moving to Tier2 and 3 urban areas to keep away from a shutdown during emergency. Expanding activities through geographies is intended to work well with the co-working group.


Co-working space:

Co-working facilities have often provided an advantage in terms of cost-efficiency. The world hopes to see the quickest post-lockdown recovery. At the point when the pandemic hazard facilitates, more organizations look to continue their business. Co-working spaces is the main decision for some organizations since they are more flexible in the time of the rent agreement. Businesses cannot afford to operate from home for so long, because many of them have tasks needing a high degree of direct control that are only possible in a structured office environment. These enterprises are heavily reliant on the office facilities to work efficiently.


Looking on, co working spaces will continue to restructure their work environments, such as relying mostly on activity-based workplace and collaborative zones. The co-working space team will have to focus on other things, such as ramping up hygiene procedures with daily sanitization of premises, beginning shift-based jobs, simulated meetings, even sanitizing the hands of each participant entering the property, and sitting in offices in compliance with social distance norms. It may include the supply of hand sanitizers and the substitution of bio-metrics with card access.


Workspace administrators will have to enable participants to make the most possible use of their collective senses when allowing the use of community resources in co-working spaces since sanitation is the highest priority. They will also have to make sure that members comply with shift-based systems to eliminate the possibility of congestion. They will also be expected to establish a new regulatory structure or regulations. People should maintain social distancing and carry face masks for good effect. Co-working spaces will be required to re-plan their work areas and make sure their encounters do not lead to infection.



For all the undoubted upsides of co-working spaces that are primarily funded by companies, freelancers, small to medium-sized organizations and start-ups. They also have drawbacks and constraints. Besides most of them missing independent canteens they often prevent businesses from holding activities in local places. Trying to maintain these services is another problem. While several major businesses utilize co-working spaces, these drawbacks have usually driven some others away from the possibility of adopting them due to lower rentals.



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