Role of nationalized banks in promoting the Indian economy.
Nationalization refers to the transfer from the State or Central Government of public sector assets to be operated or owned. The banks previously functioning under the private sector in India were transferred by an act of nationalization to the public sector. Therefore nationalized banks were established.
Following is the role of nationalized banks in promoting the Indian economy:
1. It helps in eradicating the shortage of capital formation:
Economic development is not possible in any economy unless an adequate level of capital formation exists. Banks remove the serious capital shortfall in developing countries. A sound banking system mobilizes small community savings and makes them available for productive company investment. Banks mobilize deposits through attractive interest rates and convert savings into active capital. If not, the funds will remain idle in the bank account. Banks distribute such savings through loans to productive companies that help build nations. It facilitates the optimal use of the financial resources in the economy.
2. To generate employment:
Banks help provide industries with financial resources and help generate employment opportunities automatically. Income and job generation are two very important contributions that successfully keep a strong lending line to both the industry and the economy. Nationalized banks will generate more jobs with the opening of more branches and having a reach in the deepest rural regions. In addition, the bank can also create more opportunities for employment by encouraging self-employment. It can provide loans to various projects that can promote employment opportunities directly and indirectly.
3. To keep a check on the enormous resources and give priority to a particular sector:
The takeover of commercial banks will allow the government to control huge resources from which large-scale factories can be established. It can also redirect funds to various main industries under the prevailing conditions in the world. Private sector banks did not give economic importance to industries such as the agriculture industry, small industries, cottage industries, and rural industries. The nationalization of the commercial banks could effectively enable the priority sector, in particular agriculture and small-scale industry, and encourage them to expand their businesses.
4. To develop the backward areas:
Banks from the private sector neglected rural and backward areas, and they focused on urban areas only. The nationalization of these banks and the opening of their branches in rural and retroactive areas will change this pattern. It would also allow banks to provide more credit for start-up industries in rural and backward regions. The above factors could also reduce the problem of regional disparities. People in poor and low-income underdeveloped countries do not have enough financial resources to buy sustainable consumer goods. Commercial banks provide loans to consumers to buy items such as houses, furniture, and refrigerators. They also help to improve the living conditions of people in developing countries by providing loan facilities for meeting their consumption needs.
5. To help in the implementation of monetary policy:
Nationalized banks contribute to a country’s economic growth by enforcing RBI’s monetary policy. RBI relies on Nationalised banks to ensure the effectiveness of its money management strategy, which is compatible with the needs of a developing economy.
6. To improve the efficiency in the banking sector:
The modernization and productivity of banks may be increased with more banks in the public sector. A better recruitment policy can be adopted that employs efficient men and women. Effective operations will improve and benefit banking services and consequently, it will benefit the economy.
7. To improve profits:
With the banking industry under government regulation, higher revenues will be generated. The government will reap all the income received by those banks.
8. To have uniformity in banking rules and regulations:
Banking operations could be uniform across the country. The interest rates in banks will also be the same. This will create unbiased competition in the banking sector. Banks will grant loans based on the borrower’s productivity rather than the borrower’s security. This will help to finance the ventures and industries effectively with the same norms and a standardized lending policy.
9. For better mobilization of Savings and money lenders prevention:
In the absence of a proper banking network, private financiers use the market to deliver competitive interest rates. In addition, interest earned from these banks is to some extent exempt from income tax. Banks may also promote various types of deposits for various sectors of the population.
10. To make aware of baking habits:
The Bank attracts depositors with competitive deposit plans and higher interest rates. Banks provide their customers with various forms of deposit schemes. With rising literacy in rural areas, rural people should realize the value of banking practice. This means that banks, like schools and hospitals, will also be a part of everyday life in rural areas. When maximum people adopt banking habits, there are more money transactions in the country. The need for capital or hard cash is diminishing gradually. The use of electronic media will easily move funds from one location to another. Economic development in the country will intensify. As a result, the government’s income will also increase.