Role of nationalized banks in promoting the Indian economy.

Role of nationalized banks in promoting the Indian economy.

Role of nationalized banks in promoting the Indian economy.


Nationalization refers to the transfer from the State or Central Government of public sector assets to be operated or owned. The banks previously functioning under the private sector in India were transferred by an act of nationalization to the public sector. Therefore nationalized banks were established.


Following is the role of nationalized banks in promoting the Indian economy:


1. It helps in eradicating the shortage of capital formation:

Economic development is not possible in any economy unless an adequate level of capital formation exists. Banks remove the serious capital shortfall in developing countries. A sound banking system mobilizes small community savings and makes them available for productive company investment. Banks mobilize deposits through attractive interest rates and convert savings into active capital. If not, the funds will remain idle in the bank account. Banks distribute such savings through loans to productive companies that help build nations. It facilitates the optimal use of the financial resources in the economy.


2. To generate employment:

Banks help provide industries with financial resources and help generate employment opportunities automatically. Income and job generation are two very important contributions that successfully keep a strong lending line to both the industry and the economy. Nationalized banks will generate more jobs with the opening of more branches and having a reach in the deepest rural regions. In addition, the bank can also create more opportunities for employment by encouraging self-employment. It can provide loans to various projects that can promote employment opportunities directly and indirectly.


3. To keep a check on the enormous resources and give priority to a particular sector:

The takeover of commercial banks will allow the government to control huge resources from which large-scale factories can be established. It can also redirect funds to various main industries under the prevailing conditions in the world. Private sector banks did not give economic importance to industries such as the agriculture industry, small industries, cottage industries, and rural industries. The nationalization of the commercial banks could effectively enable the priority sector, in particular agriculture and small-scale industry, and encourage them to expand their businesses.


4. To develop the backward areas:

Banks from the private sector neglected rural and backward areas, and they focused on urban areas only. The nationalization of these banks and the opening of their branches in rural and retroactive areas will change this pattern. It would also allow banks to provide more credit for start-up industries in rural and backward regions. The above factors could also reduce the problem of regional disparities. People in poor and low-income underdeveloped countries do not have enough financial resources to buy sustainable consumer goods. Commercial banks provide loans to consumers to buy items such as houses, furniture, and refrigerators. They also help to improve the living conditions of people in developing countries by providing loan facilities for meeting their consumption needs.


5. To help in the implementation of monetary policy:

Nationalized banks contribute to a country’s economic growth by enforcing RBI’s monetary policy. RBI relies on Nationalised banks to ensure the effectiveness of its money management strategy, which is compatible with the needs of a developing economy.


6. To improve the efficiency in the banking sector:

The modernization and productivity of banks may be increased with more banks in the public sector. A better recruitment policy can be adopted that employs efficient men and women. Effective operations will improve and benefit banking services and consequently, it will benefit the economy.


7. To improve profits:

With the banking industry under government regulation, higher revenues will be generated. The government will reap all the income received by those banks. 


8. To have uniformity in banking rules and regulations:

Banking operations could be uniform across the country. The interest rates in banks will also be the same. This will create unbiased competition in the banking sector. Banks will grant loans based on the borrower’s productivity rather than the borrower’s security. This will help to finance the ventures and industries effectively with the same norms and a standardized lending policy.


9. For better mobilization of Savings and money lenders prevention:

In the absence of a proper banking network, private financiers use the market to deliver competitive interest rates. In addition, interest earned from these banks is to some extent exempt from income tax. Banks may also promote various types of deposits for various sectors of the population.


10. To make aware of baking habits:

The Bank attracts depositors with competitive deposit plans and higher interest rates. Banks provide their customers with various forms of deposit schemes. With rising literacy in rural areas, rural people should realize the value of banking practice. This means that banks, like schools and hospitals, will also be a part of everyday life in rural areas. When maximum people adopt banking habits, there are more money transactions in the country. The need for capital or hard cash is diminishing gradually. The use of electronic media will easily move funds from one location to another. Economic development in the country will intensify. As a result, the government’s income will also increase.





Why do commodities Exchange Exist?



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How this pandemic will change the Auto Industry?

How this pandemic will change the Auto Industry?


Most car manufacturers are appearing brave even when some manufacturing facilities are shut down due to pandemic. The pressure to move to Bharat Norm 6 is escalating. People have reduced the travel when they’ve realized how much they can do it from home.

The automobile sector was bracing for a harsh year even before Corona virus wreaked havoc with their best laid plans.

The sector is set to reshape in ways that will have a significant effect on the eight million workers around the world who work for auto companies.


The effect due to COVID-19:

For the first time in history, the Indian automobile sector reported almost Nil monthly sales. Car producers disclose nil performance numbers on account of the closing of manufacturing plants in April 2020. This is because of a national lock down in the battle against the corona virus pandemic. Changes in consumer behavior and the effects of COVID-19 is expected to affect car sales. COVID-19 has resulted in disruptions in the supply chain and its effect on employment, wages, and so far most showrooms have seen few visitors. When sales tend to drop, closing down underutilized plants can be a concern of survival. According to Peter Wells, founder of the Center for Automotive Industry Research, several of the major plants in Europe are still going to struggle.

This will be challenging for companies that manufacture smaller cars that appear to be less competitive, such as Volkswagen, Renault, and Fiat. Nissan intends to slash about 300 billion Yen in annual operating expenses and book investment charges while the COVID-19 pandemic further disturbs the automotive industry’s revenues. According to Toyota Motor Corp, the terrible economic effect of the COVID-19 pandemic was almost over, vehicle sales can be recovered in its largest markets by the end of the year. Toyota has cash stockpiles of $74.4 billion, the result of a decade-long effort to cut costs. According to Frank Witter, Chief Financial Officer of Volkswagen AG, nobody has a clear understanding of the period and intensity of the crisis. Some auto manufacturers are collecting cash and slashing expenses to ensure that they will withstand a protracted downturn.



The move to BS-VI standards is to put pressure on the auto sector. Besides, the effects of BS-VI emission regulations and job losses will affect sales. The problems of the automobile industry are growing. For the Indian car industry, FY20 has been a difficult year. After facing market crunch due to GST and the upcoming BS-VI standards, the corona virus desperately hampers vehicle production in all categories. Combined with the market restriction arising from BS-VI standards, this has generated a cascade impact for the sector that is unlikely to bounce back soon.


Electric vehicles:

Electric vehicle sales have been remarkably robust though, lock-down sales of petrol and diesel-driven automobiles have slowed. As much of Europe closed in March, auto sales in the continent dropped by more than half. However, the registration of Electric vehicles grew by 23 percent. Sales of electric vehicles fell 31 percent in April. This is nothing compared to the overall European automotive industry, which dropped by 80 percent. Auto producers may not be as inspired to market hybrid vehicles over the coming months. Alternatively, they will be forced to drive SUVs that yield much greater revenues and are cheaper to market now that fuel costs have collapsed. Everything is going to rely on policy opportunities and regulations.

China and Europe are more encouraging than the United States to embrace electric vehicles. Electric Vehicles are also much more costly than petrol and diesel-driven. In this crisis, few customers will be able to buy it without subsidies. The government will create a scrapping program to promote battery-driven cars with tax cuts to subsidies. The emphasis needs to be on investing in regional manufacturing around the supply chain, upgrading skills, and building up EV Infrastructure throughout the nation.


About the stock:

The Nifty auto index has under-performed the market since January as it is not hopeful of any near term improvement in the sector prospects. Mahindra & Mahindra has a Market cap of Rs.47,402.93 crore. Its 52 weeks low is Rs.245.40 and its 52 weeks high is Rs.683. M&M’s closing price was Rs.381.30 and was 4.78 percent low. Maruti Suzuki’s 52 weeks low is Rs.4,001.10 and its 52 weeks high is Rs.7,758.70 having a market cap of Rs.1,54,032.08. Maruti Suzuki’s closing price was Rs.5100.40 and was 0.27 percent low.



Auto sector seeks special package to save industry from Covid-19 crisis

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How to invest in Insurance sector with tax planning.

How to invest in Insurance sector with tax planning.


Investment in insurance tools is a major part of everyone’s investment planning exercise. Although, it is important for people to be covered by certain risks, it is equally important that they buy insurance in which they accomplish their long term financial goals and helps them in tax planning. In recent years, the insurance sector has been at the forefront since the government opened it for private companies. Private insurers launched many new products and a healthy competition. This is good for investors because they have more options and a range of investments, but on the other hand it’s just as bad as it creates more uncertainty and the possibility of losing money occasionally.


All insurance products have their own pros and cons, so before making an investment decision investors should carefully understand all the aspects of the policy. Diversification and the development of a multi-product portfolio is one way to fix this challenging situation. Investors need to have knowledge of the various insurance products offered in the market and the positive or negative implications of these products. A stable insurance basket should contain Life Insurance cover, Medical Insurance cover, and Retirement/ Pension plans.


Life insurance:

The policy is available in 3 broad categories viz. endowment plans, life insurance plans, i.e. term plans and ULIPs. Endowment policies provide insurance and have some maturity returns. In this plan, maximum of the funds are invested in corporate bonds, Government securities, and various instruments from the money market. They deliver a healthy and stable return from 5% to 8%.


Term insurance is basically an insurance scheme. The premium covers the risk factor (mortality charges), revenue, and operating expenses in this package. This is why the premium paid for insurance policies is low as compared to the endowment plans. The premium charged in term insurance has no savings element and therefore no maturity benefits are paid to the individual.


Funds in the ULIPs scheme are mostly invested in the stock market and corporate bonds. The main distinction between ULIPs and standard insurance policies is the allocation of funds in stocks. These schemes pledge better maturity benefits, as stock markets have historically produced better returns over the long term. Nevertheless, investments in stocks are likely to lose money to a certain degree. Investors should opt for life insurance policies as soon as possible as age is one of the key determinants of the risk premium decision. As the income of an individual rises, they should increase their cover. It is normally said that the cover must be approximately 4 to 5 times of the annual income. An individual must fusion all three plans to limit the cash outflow and also to get the balance returns and reduce the risk.



Medical Insurance cover:

Medical compensation plans cover the massive medical expenses that occur in the care of an illness. As daily medical treatment is expensive, every person must have a medical insurance policy. Until accepting a policy, most health insurance plans do not cover chronic illnesses. It is therefore necessary to comprehend your medical policy in depth and invest early to offset the policy’s full grievances.



Future Provisions with Pension and retirement plans:

Insurance pension schemes offer life insurance to the investors when they are in the earning stage and monthly retirement benefits once they retire. ULPP is a type of pension plan where the funds are invested in market instruments. Investors can invest in ULPPs early, say at the age of 20, because they can afford to lose equity funds. Later, they can transfer their funds slowly into capital security schemes.



Tax planning:

While the majority think of tax planning as a process which reduces their tax liabilities, investing in the right instruments at the right time is also important in order to reach your financial goals as per your maturity period i.e. short, medium, and long. Basically, four different forms of tax planning exist.



Tax planning under Short Range:

It is a term used for tax preparation, which is used and conducted at the end of the financial year. Investors use this strategy to find ways to shrink their tax payments officially at the end of the financial year. Suppose if you decide at the end of the financial year that your taxes are high relative to the previous year, you might want to diminish it. Assessments can be done to get benefits under Section 88. Short-term tax planning does not require long-term obligations, though substantial tax savings can also be promoted.


Tax planning under Long Range:

The long range tax strategy is one that the taxpayer implements over the year. This policy does not provide immediate tax relief benefits as short-term plans do, but maybe beneficial in the long term. Typically you will begin investing at the start of the new financial year and continue to invest for a period of more than one year.


Tax planning under Permissive Measures:

Permissive tax planning means managing investments under different terms of India’s taxation legislation. There are various legal provisions in India that include exemptions, deductions, and benefits. Like Section 80C provides various types of exemption on tax savings investments.


Tax planning under Purposive Measures:

Purposive tax planning states planning of your investments for specific purposes thus ensuring that you can make the most of your investments. This includes the correct selection of investment instruments, the creation of an appropriate plan to substitute (if necessary), and Revenue and business assets diversification depending on your residential status.

In a nutshell, spending on Income tax is a moral and financial obligation which we all bear as citizens of India. The taxes we pay are used for our country’s growth. In a way, the taxes we pay are used for our benefit. According to the different income slabs, we each pay a different percentage of taxes, but all Indian people are entitled for the benefits equally.




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What are Gold funds and what are the benefits?

What are Gold Funds and what are its benefits?


Gold funds are unique type of mutual funds, through which investors can invest directly or indirectly in Gold Reserves. They can invest in the gold producing stocks, mining company stocks or in physical gold. Gold funds are the most convenient asset to invest, without the risk of theft or paper work as they are in digital form. This fund is kind of an open ended investment, where investor can issue or redeem at any point of time based on the units which they hold. However, their price directly depends on the metal (gold). Some investors use gold funds to hedge and diversify their portfolio and protect against uncertain economic condition. Many investors diversify around 10 to 20 percent of their portfolio by investing in gold funds. Golds funds are regulated by the SEBI and it is ideal for investors who are risk averse.


Types of gold funds available across globe for investors:

Gold Mining Funds:

In this, funds are invested in stocks of the mining companies and returns depends on the performance of these stocks. However, investment does not get affected due to any fluctuation in economy as gold price is affected mainly due to the fluctuation in demand and supply of gold. Gold exchange traded funds were first introduced by Benchmark Asset Company in India. This funds basically invest in the gold through Demat account. Returns and value of the investments totally depend on the price of gold. Investment in Gold Fund of Fund is same as exchange traded funds as in this, investments are made in particular unit of the Exchange traded funds without opening the Demat account.


Main purpose of Gold Funds:

Main purpose for investors to invest in gold funds is to grow their investment value and create wealth in whatever period the investment is made with protection against the market fluctuation. Price of Underlying asset varies according to change in demand of gold and at the time of maturity returns are calculated on current gold price. If gold price is increased, it gives more returns at the time of redemption.


What are tax charges for Gold Funds?

Normally, the tax which is charged on the Gold Jewellery is applicable to the Gold Mutual Funds schemes. But, taxes also vary according to the tenure. If investments are made for less than three years than revenue is added to the total gross income and considered as short term. But if investments are made for more than three years than 20 percent tax is applicable with indexation norms and CESS charges. However, if capital gains is through exchange traded funds (Gold ETFs), tax exempt is given. No TDS is applicable to Golds Mutual funds. During the time of buying or selling of funds, same tax is applicable as on Gold Jewellery.


Benefits of Gold Funds:

Flexibility in investment:

Gold funds allows investors to invest according to their convenience, comparing to the physical purchase of the gold. Investment can be made as low as Rs 500 and even small income class can also invest in this fund rather than purchasing physical gold which costs higher than these funds and gives flexibility. Gold mutual funds are one of the safest investment as these funds are regulated by Security exchange board of India and they continuously monitors the performance of this type of funds so that investors can analyse their future returns. Gold Funds are also safer than holding physical assets (Gold) as it is in de-materialized form.


Highly liquid:

Gold funds are high liquid funds as investors can redeem them in short term and are also protected against the uncertain economic situation. However, during market hours only, it can be buy or sell and net asset value of previous day is considered at the time of selling and trade is offset in one or two working day. To balance the overall portfolio, investor may always choose gold funds. Gold price is not directly affected to one investor’s overall investment and stocks in which investment is made. Gold fund is considered as one of the safest investment with good returns.


Some finest Gold Mutual Funds in India:

Axis Gold Funds has given return in a year up to 26% and for 3 to 5 year period 4%.
SBI Funds has given returns up to 22% in a year and 6% in 5 years.
HDFC Gold Fund has given returns of 22% in a year and 6% in 5 year period.




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Importance of Financial Literacy. Why it is a must have today

Importance of Financial Literacy.


One of the main concern is Financial literacy in this present situation, as it is directly affects the country’s economic development. India stands way behind in financial literacy level comparing to other countries. As per the media reports, India accounts for nearly 20% of the world’s population, but 76% of India’s adult population is not even mindful of the simple financial theories. It discloses that financial literacy is very low in India vs. the rest of the world.


Financial literacy, like other developed nations, has still not been a priority in India. The lack of basic financial knowledge contributes to deprived investment and decision-making. Thus a maximum of Indian people invest in plans which have short maturity and physical assets to achieve their personal goals, which offer fewer benefits and do not contribute to the country’s economic growth.


As per the media reports, nearly 76% of Indian adults do not grasp the fundamental financial principles and are thus financially illiterate. The studies suggest that India always had a low rate of financial literacy relative to the rest of the world. In fact, we are still far behind other countries and now is the time for developing countries like India to realize the value of financial literacy.


Why it is Important?

It is important because it will help us to know how money is to be invested and handled and how it can be used in ways that makes a person financially more secure in the future.

Justification for its importance is as follows:


Value of money:

Firstly, it is very imperative for all of us to know the value of money. This will help us to handle our finances efficiently. Financial literacy will teach us the importance of saving and appropriately budgeting the funds. We should not waste our money on unnecessary and expensive products. We can understand better, the difference between our wishes and needs and we should prioritize things in our daily lives according to our quintessence.


Keep the Debt in Control:

Being financially literate will help us to have a proper check-in our debt. Too much debt will make us profoundly troubled. If we are financially competent, we can decide how debt can be afforded and will be able to pay off timely, especially if we have mortgage and insurance bills. This will teach us to plan for the education and future needs of our children as well as medical and hospital expenses without the need to lend money.


Imparting financial Knowledge among Youngsters:

Being financially aware will enable us to protect the future of the coming generation. We should teach them how to make budgets and save for years to come. They will also understand how their parents work hard to fulfill all their needs, even at their young age. In making them understand the importance of financial literacy, responsibility and reverence for their parents will also be taught. This will also help them realize that they will be financially secure as soon as they age. Imparting financial knowledge will help them to be more responsible and street-smart.


To be ready for any kind of uncertainties and to add other income streams:

We face emergencies that need cash, or resources to sustain or overcome our financial and emotional crises. In times like these, being financially educated saves us the trouble of borrowing money, which only brings us more problems. Financial literacy will benefit us to invest in stocks and develop more income sources besides our salaries. The creation of multiple revenue streams gives us the buoyancy that financial crises can survive.


Assistance in old-age:

If you are financially literate at a young age, you will be stress-free for the rest of the life, as all the provisions to secure the future would be initiated earlier itself. An appropriate retirement and pension plan at the age to 30 will be rewarding for an entire life.


Works as a helping hand:

If we spend a certain amount of money for instance we invest in stocks, we assist the company’s business to expand. This will generate more jobs and will help the company to generate more profits. This results in improving jobs and helps to create a more progressive nation. Being financially stable gives us the opportunity to share our blessings with the poor. Helping others brings us an overwhelming feeling of fulfillment.



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Ashok Leyland Q1 FY23 Result Update.

Trends transforming the automotive industry.

Trends transforming the automotive industry.


The automobile market is undergoing a profound transition in terms of its far-reaching effect on business and its customers. This estimates the structural transformation of the automobile sector in terms of timescale, complexity, and quantity. One of the industries that has been under extreme stress over the past two years is heading for another turbulent year of falling revenue, growing costs, and ever-present government regulations. Driving is going to be convenient, simpler, cheaper, and safer. At the very same point, the revolution in personal transportation will push the automobile industry to redefine itself to some degree.



The move to emission-free transition will become a universal necessity. Electric power used to power cars will gradually come from renewable power to maintain carbon dioxide-free mobility. The shift to emission free human autonomy will not be feasible without the electrification of the running rail. Firstly, there is the problem of local materials. The reality is that vehicles are still producing very small amounts of toxic contaminants, noise, and air pollution. It also suggests that the emission-free effort will be a regional one. The energy used to power cars should come from green sources to guarantee CO2-neutral mobility. After all, the vehicles of tomorrow will not only be a subject of mutual and autonomous proportions but will also be wired and electrified. Owing to the accelerated growth of electric cars, it can be concluded that the overwhelming majority of automobiles will be e-vehicle.



The development of cars that do not need human interaction will reduce the usage of shared transportation systems and give personal transportation to different consumer groups. The exponential advances made in fields such as machine learning and artificial intelligence make it easier to accomplish that appeared impossible – i.e. the creation of automated cars, which do not need human interaction except in complicated traffic scenarios. This will redefine the usage of human mobility channels. It is probably attribute to the reality that the electrified and autonomous aspects are equally compatible. The proportion of shared and automated vehicles in the total road network will improve dramatically.


Car sharing:

Properly operated fleets of autonomous cars can lower the cost of transport dramatically by allowing more effective usage of costly mobile infrastructure. Over several years, many metropolitan areas have provided car-sharing services. Although, these are still mostly conducted as pilot projects or citizens’ programs. Exchanging ideas may become commercially feasible with the advent of automated vehicles. It will no longer be appropriate to look for a shared car in the local area. It will be possible to request vehicles anywhere the customer might be via a flexible on-demand platform. Although, station-based ride-sharing indicates that cars will only be obtained from predefined locations. The region of distribution for car-sharing represents the supplier’s market field. Ride-hailing is about taking a ride. This definition is increasing in prominence and will no longer be considered a fringe trend.


Demand for smaller cars:

Possible pay reductions, work shortages, declining wages, and no incentives will all cause Indian customers to be suspicious of investing mega-money on new cars. After the lock down is removed, the market for smaller cars like Tiago, Santro, Celerio, and WagonR, etc. will rise. Citizens will usually be suspicious of commuting through public transit if and when they are accessible to the public because of worries of being infected. They will like to drive in their automobiles and will opt to purchase a 2-wheeler or smaller vehicle without needing to pay so much on luxury SUVs, hatchbacks, or sedans. Maruti Suzuki will be the major winner of all of this and will undoubtedly improve its market share by new product releases and price cuts to target the middle-class community.


Used cars:

Used vehicles will be the kind of the post-COVID-19 world. A survey revealed that the inquiries for pre-own vehicles multiplied during the lock down time frame. Purchaser viewpoint appeared to be more rounded among the individuals who enquired about used vehicles. 77% of them were happy to proceed with their buy after the lock down. It was noticed that an impressive level of respondents liked to purchase old vehicles because of budget restrictions. The used car would profit most as people switching from a public vehicle to a private vehicle. With India’s auto industry is facing depression for more than a year and the Covid-19 shutdown now expected to deepen and the financial pressure of the mid-income class, used cars might end up being a go-to option.


Online portal:

The auto sector registered a major decrease in sales due to COVID-19 and BSVI. In the past few months, several automotive makers have switched to the online platform to improve demand. Hyundai, Honda, BMW, Maruti Suzuki, and others consider that this is an opportunity to reach out to potential customers as additional support to dealers. Automobile manufacturers are offering schemes to help customers easily buy their vehicle in the middle of the lock down. Auto OEMs try to concentrate further on the digital world to boost demand. Most dealerships and retailers will focus on expanding their digital presence, providing pick-up and delivery of cars for service and sale, and giving consumers a smooth shopping interface to achieve loyalty.



Importance of Financial Literacy.

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Fertilizers, Steel, Cement, and Electricity. How these sectors performed in April 2020.

Fertilizers, Steel, Cement, and Electricity. How these sectors performed in April 2020.



The Fertilizers production observed a fall of 4.5% YoY to 2,748 thousand tones in April 2020. The price of UREA in April 2020 stood at USD $262/MT vs. at USD $248/MT in April 2019. Price of DAP in April 2020 stood at USD $393/MT vs. at USD $424/MT in April 2019. The price of MOP in April 2020 stood at USD $290/MT vs. at USD $240/MT in April 2019.The production of UREA in April 2020 stood at 18.25 LMT vs. 16.51 LMT in April 2019. The estimated target was 17.67 LMT. The imports in April 2020 was observed at 3.40 LMT vs. 1.75 LMT in April 2019. The availability of UREA in April 2020 stood at 25.89 LMT. However, the sales were observed at 20.24 LMT in April 2020 vs. 15.96 LMT in April 2019. The production of DAP in April 2020 stood at 2.60 LMT vs. 4.18 LMT in April 2019. The estimated target was 2.45 LMT. The import in April 2020 observed at 2.62 LMT vs. 5.38 LMT in April 2019. The availability of DAP in April 2020 stood at 12.09 LMT, however, the sales were observed at 6.95 LMT in April 2020 vs. 3.56 LMT in April 2019.



The Crude steel production stood at 2.752 MT in April 2020 vs. 9.021 MT in April 2019 with a fall of 69.5%. The Finished steel production stood at 1.346 MT in April 2020 vs. 8.753 MT in April 2019 with a fall of 84.6%. The consumption of steel witnessed a fall of 90.9% at 0.699 MT in April 2020 vs. 7.691 MT in April 2019. The Imports of Finished Steel stood at 407 thousand tones in April 2020 vs. 619 thousand tones in April 2019 with a decline of 34.3%. The Export of Finished Steel stood at 429 thousand tones in April 2020 vs. 516 thousand tones in April 2019 with a decline of 16.8%. The total sales turnover of steel from PSU unit in April 2020 from SAIL stood at 855 MT vs. 4537 MT with a fall of 81.2%. For RINL, in April 2020 it stood at 281 MT vs. 993 MT in April 2019 with a fall of 71.7%. For NMDC in April 2020, it stood at 400 MT vs. 750 MT in April 2019 with a fall of 46.7%. For MOIL in April 2020, it stood at 34.47 MT vs. 55.31 MT in April 2019 with a fall of 37.7%.



The cement sector production stood at 4,077 thousand tons with a decline of 86% in April 2020. It observed a fall of 25.08% compared to the preceding month. The yearly Index for fiscal year 2020 stood at 145.7 vs. 147 in FY19. Some insights of cement sectors is that India is on the 2nd position in production of cement all over the globe as of 31st December 2019. Cement production in FY20 amounted to 334.48 MT. The capacity of cement production is projected to reach 550 MT by 2020. 98% of the overall capacity is from the private sector and the rest from the public sector. Around 70% of India’s total cement output is produced by the top 20 firms. Forecast noted the cement industry will meet the demand of 550-600 MT annually by 2025 as a result of the growing demands from different divisions, such as residential, commercial, and industrial construction.



The Total Electricity generation in April 2020 stood at 81,538.34 GWH vs. 1,09,263.44 in April 2019 with a decline of 25%. In April 2020, electricity generation stood at 74% as compared to the same period in the previous year. The Electricity generation in April 2020 from nuclear category stood at 4,144.34 GWH vs. 3,287.32 GWH in April 2019 with an increase of 34.28%. In April 2020, electricity generation from nuclear category stood at 126% as compared to the same period in the previous year. The Electricity generation in April 2020 from the hydro category stood at 9,658.23 GWH vs. 11,072.61 GWH in April 2019 with a fall of 12.77%. In April 2020, electricity generation from the hydro category stood at 87.23% as compared to the same period in previous year.

The Electricity generation in April 2020 from Bhutan IMP category stood at 90.90 GWH vs. 239.70 GWH in April 2019 with a fall of 62.07%. In April 2020, electricity generation from the hydro category stood at 38% as compared to same period in previous year. The Electricity generation in April 2020 from Thermal category stood at 67,644.87 GWH vs. 94,663.81 GWH in April 2019 with a fall of 27.66%. In April 2020, electricity generation from Thermal category stood at 71% as compared to same period in previous year.


Core Data of Coal, Crude oil, Natural Gas and Refinery Products sector in April 2020.

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How to choose the best mutual funds?

How to choose the best mutual funds?


Mutual fund is one of the best investment option for a regular investor, where investors can select and invest in a mutual fund scheme according to their financial goals and risk taking capability. However, an investor can directly invest or hire a mutual fund advisor. If an investor is investing directly, they will invest through direct plans of mutual fund scheme and if investor invests through a mutual fund advisor, they will invest in a regular plan of mutual fund scheme.


What are the various types of Mutual funds available to investors?


1. Equity mutual fund scheme – These funds are directly invested in stocks and returns depends on how these stocks perform over a period of time. These schemes give high returns but are very risky if invested for short term. Investors should invest for long term, at least for five to ten years. There are 10 types of equity mutual fund schemes available based on the capitalization and tenure such as Multi Cap funds, Large Cap funds, Large and Mid-cap funds, Mid Cap Funds, small cap funds, Dividend Yield Funds, Value Funds, Contra Funds, Focused Funds, Sectoral or thematic funds and Equity linked saving schemes (ELSS).


2. Debt mutual fund scheme – This MF scheme directly invests in Debt Securities. Investors who want to invest for short term i.e less than 5 years, should invest in these schemes. These schemes are less risky than equity schemes and provide modest returns. There are 16 debt mutual fund schemes based on tenure and returns such as Overnight Funds, Liquid Funds, Ultra short duration funds, low duration Funds, Money Market Funds, Short duration funds, Medium duration funds, Medium to long duration funds, Long duration Funds, Dynamic Bonds, Corporate bond funds, Credit Risk Funds, Banking and PSU funds, Gilt Funds, Gilt funds with ten years duration and Floater funds.


3. Hybrid mutual fund scheme – This scheme invests in debt and equity schemes. Investors can select these scheme based on their risk appetite. There are six hybrid mutual funds available based on the allocation and investment pattern such as Conservative hybrid Funds, Balanced Hybrid Funds, Aggressive hybrid Funds, Dynamic Asset Allocation, Multi Asset allocation, Arbitrage Funds and Equity Savings.


4. Solution oriented Scheme – These Schemes are especially for a particular solution or goal such as child’s education or retirement. However, they have mandatory lock in period of 5 years.



Mutual Fund Charges:

Total Expenses which a particular Mutual Fund incurred is known as Expense Ratio and this measures per unit cost of the funds managed. Generally, expense ratio is charged around 1.5 to 2.5 percent of the weekly (average) net asset of schemes.



How to select best Mutual Funds?


1. Know your financial goals and risk appetite – As an investor, one must first analyse his financial goals. Ask questions like, what they are looking for, short term or long term investment? Do they want to go for high risk, high return or low risk medium returns? For what purpose is money needed like retirement or any other specific purpose? Do they need money in near future? Or they want to invest for lock in period? By answering these questions, Investor will get a clear picture of their financial goals.


2. Compare the Expense RatioCost of owing some funds can be expensive so choose the lowest possible expense ratio. For example, if one fund has a cost of 0.50 percent while another has a cost of 1.5 percent as an expense ratio. Investors should choose according to the schemes and expense cost.


3. Avoid funds which have high turnoverIt is important to see turnover rate for funds, as it impacts the tax rate. It is basically a percentage of the portfolio that is brought and sold in a particular year. Usually, portfolio with more than 50 percent turnover carry higher tax rates.


4. Hire Disciplined Management Team – Fund manager should be selected on basis of the past record track and portfolio manager with high talent and experience team should be chosen.


5. Select No load Mutual FundThey are basically the fees, which are charged on assets (5% of assets usually). However, not all funds have charges. Investors should choose wisely, no load fund carry no charges and increases overall returns.


6. Check historical data and Diversify assets – investors should check historical data, reports and how they have evaluated them. Diversify whole portfolio, because in case an asset does not perform well due to some reasons, other asset class can balance them.



Some of the best mutual funds:

1. Nippon India US Equity Opportunities FundIt has an expense ratio of 1.5% and has given returns around 15% per annum in 5 years.

2. ICICI Prudential US Blue Chip Equity FundIts expense Ratio is 1.79% and returns of 13.81% Per annum in last 5 years.

3. DSP World Gold Fund – Expense Ratio 1.9% and Returns around 12.81% per annum.



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Coal, Crude oil, Natural Gas and Refinery Products. How these sectors performed in April 2020.

Coal, Crude oil, Natural Gas and Refinery Products. How these sectors performed in April 2020.



The production of coal in April stood at 47 MT with a fall of 15.46% vs 4% in March 2020. The imports of coal decreased by 29.1% at ₹18.65 MT in April 2020, whereas in April 2019 it stood at 26.34 MT. The fall in the month of April 2020 is due to rise of the pandemic. The coal imports observed a fall of 6.18% in April 2020 over the preceding month. Out of the total imports of coal in April 2020, the volume of non-coking coal stood at 13.05 MT vs. 13.6 MT in the preceding month whereas the volume of cooking imports coal stood at 3.3 MT in April 2020. The total coal import for FY20 stood at 247.1 MT vs. 235.35 MT in FY19, with an increase of 5%. The key coal consumption sector is struggling with poor demand as a result of the lock down and the low capacity of plants. This resulted in a decline of demand for coal. In order to raise coal demand, the government has announced a range of steps such as an expanded availability of dry fuel for linkage consumers. It has also announced a number of relief measures, including the power sector, for CIL consumers.


Crude oil:

The production of crude oil in April 2020 stood at 2.5 MT vs. 2.7 MT in April 2019 with a fall of 6.35%. The production in April was 1.44% less than the monthly target. The target was 2,583.03 TMT whereas production was of 2,545.81 TMT. Crude oil production by ONGC stood at 1,681.77 TMT in April 2020 vs. 1,690.78 TMT in April 2019 with a fall of 0.53%. It was less by 0.65% to achieve the monthly target of 1,692.83 TMT in April 2020. Crude oil production by Oil India Limited stood at 248.25 TMT in April 2020 vs. 250.52 TMT in April 2019 with a fall of 6.39%. It was less by 0.9% to achieve the monthly target of 250.52 TMT in April 2020. Crude oil production by PSC Fields stood at 615.80 TMT in April 2020 vs. 639.68 TMT in April 2019 with a fall of 19.25%. It was less by 3.73% to achieve the monthly target of 639.68 TMT in April 2020.


Natural Gas:

The production of Natural gas in April 2020 stood at 2,161.33 MMSCM vs. 2,655.89 MMSCM in April 2019 with a fall of 10.88%. The production in April was 10.88% less than the monthly target, the target was 2,425.32 MMSCM. Natural gas production by ONGC stood at 1,725.69 MMSCM in April 2020 vs. 2,037.71 MMSCM in April 2019 with a fall of 15.31%. It was less by 12.73% to achieve the monthly target of 1,977.42 MMSCM in April 2020. Natural gas production by Oil India Limited stood at 202.05 MMSCM in April 2020 vs. 224.49 MMSCM in April 2019 with a fall of 9.9%. It was less by 4.64% to achieve the monthly target of 211.88 MMSCM in April 2020. Natural gas production by PSC Fields stood at 233.59 MMSCM in April 2020 vs. 393.70 MMSCM in April 2019 with a fall of 40.67%. It was less by 1.03% to achieve the monthly target of 236.02 MMSCM in April 2020.


Refinery Products:

The production of Refinery products in April 2020 stood at 14,745.18 MT vs. 2,20,703.06 MT in April 2019 with a fall of 28.78%. The production in April was 22.01% less than the monthly target, the target was 18907.44 TMT. Refinery Products production by CPSE Refineries stood at 7,103.76 TMT in April 2020 vs. 11,263.33 TMT in April 2019 with a fall of 36.93%. It was less by 28.91% to achieve the monthly target of 9,992.36 TMT in April 2020. Refinery Products production by JV Refineries stood at 925.13 TMT in April 2020 vs. 1,721.66 TMT in April 2019 with a fall of 46.26%. It was less by 22.71% to achieve the monthly target of 1197 TMT in April 2020. Refinery Products production by Private Refineries stood at 6,716.28 TMT in April 2020 vs. 7,718.08 TMT in April 2019 with a fall of 12.98%. It was less by 12.98% to achieve the monthly target of 7,718 TMT in April 2020.



Weekly market update (26th May – 29th May).

Brent oil

Airport Authority of India provides new air travel guidelines.

Airport Authority of India provides new air travel guidelines.


The Minister of Civil Aviation has declared that domestic air operations will start in a structured format starting from 25th May. The Airport Authority of India (AAI) has released new guidance until the nation resumes air services. Stringent sanitation standards will be implemented at all airports while the airplanes restart all around the country. These instructions are provided by the Ministry of Aviation and is to be practiced by travelers beginning from 25th May during their journeys.


Guidelines to be followed:

1. Social distancing and minimal contact is to be maintained.

2. Sensitive individuals such as people with sickness, elderly, and pregnant women, are recommended to avoid traveling. A traveller should not travel if he/she is in containment zone. The traveller should not travel if he/she is tested positive for COVID-19. Passengers will have to wear a mask throughout the journey.

3. If a traveller is not allowed to air travel, he / she will be liable for penal charges.

4. Travellers should give the following declarations:

-I / we are not staying in a containment zone.

-I / we are not experiencing any coughing, fever or breathing difficulties.

-I / we are was never under quarantine.

-If I / we develop any of those mentioned symptoms, should notify the health department immediately.

-I / we have not tested positive for COVID-19.

-I / we are eligible to travel as per the extant standards.

-If needed, I / we should make the mobile number accessible to the airline.

-I agree that if I were to fly by air without satisfying the eligibility criteria, I will be subject to penal charges.

5. Airlines need to ensure that the border pass is provided only when the passenger has confirmed the above declarations.

6. Passengers should arrive at the airport according to the updated arrival period of 2 hours before departure.

7. All departing travellers should be registered with the ‘Aarogya Setu’ App on their cell phones and reviewed by CISFI Airport workers at the entrance gate. Also, Aarogya Setu is not compulsory for children under 14 years of age. If the app is not available, the passenger will be required to go to the counter at which the Aarogya Setu app is available for download.

8. For travellers and employees travelling from and to the airport, either private cars or selected approved taxi services with limited seating is allowed. Travellers must get down from the vehicles with mask, gloves and necessary documents.

9. Travelers will have to walk via the Thermal Scanning Zone at a particular location in the city side before accessing the terminals.

10. Travellers should test their temperature and show the status of the Aarogya Setu application to the employees at the entrance gate.

11. Traveller to display his / her identity, the boarding pass at the entry gate to the CIFS workers

12. The traveller should be given an electronic receipt.

13. Travellers to complete check-in and luggage drop at least 60 minutes prior to departure.

14. Passengers should follow the directions suggested by the authorities to remove all metals on the body to enable security checking.

15. To make sure that social distancing is followed, marks such as triangles, squares will be given across the cart selection of luggage to facilitate social distancing.

16. Limitation on baggage – Only one check-in luggage and one cabin suitcase is allowed.

17. Passengers should be responsible for their own protection by following the health and security directions. Hand sanitizers for travellers and airport personnel at different locations will be made available by the airport operators.

18. While waiting in the security hold zone, travellers must maintain social distancing and sanitization.

19. Usage of trolleys in departure and arrival field will not be allowed. Although, specifying a few travellers needing a trolley for a genuine reason, will be given on request.

20. Airport authorities should make sufficient provisions for the sanitation of luggages.

21. Plexiglass will be used for security test counters and check-in.

22. Passenger seats at airports should be configured in such a way as to preserve the social distancing measures between passengers by utilizing chairs and covering certain seats which will not be utilized, with appropriate identifying marks/tapes.

23. In compliance with the guidelines provided by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW), all airport personnels managing the airplane should be supplied with hand sanitizers and other necessary safety equipment like face masks, etc.

24. Passengers will need to do a web check-in and then will get a boarding pass.

25. Travellers will have to download the luggage label, print it, and affix that to the luggage in a significant place. If the traveller is unable to print the luggage tag, he/she must note the PNR and the traveller name on paper and affix it to a strong string.

26. Magazines and newspapers will not be made available in lounges and terminal buildings.

27. Wherever feasible, open-air ventilation in airports will be used rather than air conditioning systems.

28. Chairs labelled “Not for use” should not be used

29. Travellers should be aware of social distancing and preserve hygiene when going to F&B, retail stores, etc.

30. The whole terminal disinfection with legally registered disinfectants should be done by spraying disinfectants or by physical cleanings at periodic times.

31. The airport operator must maintain cleanliness and hygiene in all buildings, nooks and corners and public spaces, like restrooms, railings, tables, shelves, escalators, walls, ramps, trolleys etc., to be completed prior the flight arrives and after the last person exits the terminal.

32. Travellers must dispose of all bio hazardous items such as used gloves, masks, tissues, etc, in a yellow disposable bin situated at a convenient place in the airport.

33. Travellers should be pay attention to the different communication materials shown at the airport on the numerous safety advisories related to pre-boarding and during flight precautions.

34. Throughout the aircraft, passengers will observe hygiene and sanitation. Face-to-face engagement should be limited.

35. Travellers to minimize the use of toilets and avoid any activity which is not necessary.

36. No queuing outside the bathroom and one person to aid the kids and seniors citizens will be allowed.

37. No food will be served on the airplane. Bottle of water will be made accessible in the galley area or on the chair.

38. When the traveller is feeling uneasy or suffering from renal distress, it should be immediately notified to the crew.

39. The airlines will disembark passengers in a sequential manner.

40. Trolley to be used sparingly in the arrival area.

41. Travellers to wait in the luggage hold area until the luggage arrives in batches.

42. Passenger travel will not be allowed to leave the transit zone.

43. Daily disinfection should be done at the pick-up taxi and drop off locations outside the airports.

44. Upon arrival at the airport, travellers must comply with the safety guidelines specified by the destination state / Union Terriority.



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