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What are Gold funds and what are the benefits?

What are Gold Funds and what are its benefits?

 

Gold funds are unique type of mutual funds, through which investors can invest directly or indirectly in Gold Reserves. They can invest in the gold producing stocks, mining company stocks or in physical gold. Gold funds are the most convenient asset to invest, without the risk of theft or paper work as they are in digital form. This fund is kind of an open ended investment, where investor can issue or redeem at any point of time based on the units which they hold. However, their price directly depends on the metal (gold). Some investors use gold funds to hedge and diversify their portfolio and protect against uncertain economic condition. Many investors diversify around 10 to 20 percent of their portfolio by investing in gold funds. Golds funds are regulated by the SEBI and it is ideal for investors who are risk averse.

 

Types of gold funds available across globe for investors:

Gold Mining Funds:

In this, funds are invested in stocks of the mining companies and returns depends on the performance of these stocks. However, investment does not get affected due to any fluctuation in economy as gold price is affected mainly due to the fluctuation in demand and supply of gold. Gold exchange traded funds were first introduced by Benchmark Asset Company in India. This funds basically invest in the gold through Demat account. Returns and value of the investments totally depend on the price of gold. Investment in Gold Fund of Fund is same as exchange traded funds as in this, investments are made in particular unit of the Exchange traded funds without opening the Demat account.

 

Main purpose of Gold Funds:

Main purpose for investors to invest in gold funds is to grow their investment value and create wealth in whatever period the investment is made with protection against the market fluctuation. Price of Underlying asset varies according to change in demand of gold and at the time of maturity returns are calculated on current gold price. If gold price is increased, it gives more returns at the time of redemption.

 

What are tax charges for Gold Funds?

Normally, the tax which is charged on the Gold Jewellery is applicable to the Gold Mutual Funds schemes. But, taxes also vary according to the tenure. If investments are made for less than three years than revenue is added to the total gross income and considered as short term. But if investments are made for more than three years than 20 percent tax is applicable with indexation norms and CESS charges. However, if capital gains is through exchange traded funds (Gold ETFs), tax exempt is given. No TDS is applicable to Golds Mutual funds. During the time of buying or selling of funds, same tax is applicable as on Gold Jewellery.

 

Benefits of Gold Funds:

Flexibility in investment:

Gold funds allows investors to invest according to their convenience, comparing to the physical purchase of the gold. Investment can be made as low as Rs 500 and even small income class can also invest in this fund rather than purchasing physical gold which costs higher than these funds and gives flexibility. Gold mutual funds are one of the safest investment as these funds are regulated by Security exchange board of India and they continuously monitors the performance of this type of funds so that investors can analyse their future returns. Gold Funds are also safer than holding physical assets (Gold) as it is in de-materialized form.

 

Highly liquid:

Gold funds are high liquid funds as investors can redeem them in short term and are also protected against the uncertain economic situation. However, during market hours only, it can be buy or sell and net asset value of previous day is considered at the time of selling and trade is offset in one or two working day. To balance the overall portfolio, investor may always choose gold funds. Gold price is not directly affected to one investor’s overall investment and stocks in which investment is made. Gold fund is considered as one of the safest investment with good returns.

 

Some finest Gold Mutual Funds in India:

Axis Gold Funds has given return in a year up to 26% and for 3 to 5 year period 4%.
SBI Funds has given returns up to 22% in a year and 6% in 5 years.
HDFC Gold Fund has given returns of 22% in a year and 6% in 5 year period.

 

 

 

Equity Right

Importance of Financial Literacy. Why it is a must have today

Importance of Financial Literacy.

 

One of the main concern is Financial literacy in this present situation, as it is directly affects the country’s economic development. India stands way behind in financial literacy level comparing to other countries. As per the media reports, India accounts for nearly 20% of the world’s population, but 76% of India’s adult population is not even mindful of the simple financial theories. It discloses that financial literacy is very low in India vs. the rest of the world.

 

Financial literacy, like other developed nations, has still not been a priority in India. The lack of basic financial knowledge contributes to deprived investment and decision-making. Thus a maximum of Indian people invest in plans which have short maturity and physical assets to achieve their personal goals, which offer fewer benefits and do not contribute to the country’s economic growth.

 

As per the media reports, nearly 76% of Indian adults do not grasp the fundamental financial principles and are thus financially illiterate. The studies suggest that India always had a low rate of financial literacy relative to the rest of the world. In fact, we are still far behind other countries and now is the time for developing countries like India to realize the value of financial literacy.

 

Why it is Important?

It is important because it will help us to know how money is to be invested and handled and how it can be used in ways that makes a person financially more secure in the future.

Justification for its importance is as follows:

 

Value of money:

Firstly, it is very imperative for all of us to know the value of money. This will help us to handle our finances efficiently. Financial literacy will teach us the importance of saving and appropriately budgeting the funds. We should not waste our money on unnecessary and expensive products. We can understand better, the difference between our wishes and needs and we should prioritize things in our daily lives according to our quintessence.

 

Keep the Debt in Control:

Being financially literate will help us to have a proper check-in our debt. Too much debt will make us profoundly troubled. If we are financially competent, we can decide how debt can be afforded and will be able to pay off timely, especially if we have mortgage and insurance bills. This will teach us to plan for the education and future needs of our children as well as medical and hospital expenses without the need to lend money.

 

Imparting financial Knowledge among Youngsters:

Being financially aware will enable us to protect the future of the coming generation. We should teach them how to make budgets and save for years to come. They will also understand how their parents work hard to fulfill all their needs, even at their young age. In making them understand the importance of financial literacy, responsibility and reverence for their parents will also be taught. This will also help them realize that they will be financially secure as soon as they age. Imparting financial knowledge will help them to be more responsible and street-smart.

 

To be ready for any kind of uncertainties and to add other income streams:

We face emergencies that need cash, or resources to sustain or overcome our financial and emotional crises. In times like these, being financially educated saves us the trouble of borrowing money, which only brings us more problems. Financial literacy will benefit us to invest in stocks and develop more income sources besides our salaries. The creation of multiple revenue streams gives us the buoyancy that financial crises can survive.

 

Assistance in old-age:

If you are financially literate at a young age, you will be stress-free for the rest of the life, as all the provisions to secure the future would be initiated earlier itself. An appropriate retirement and pension plan at the age to 30 will be rewarding for an entire life.

 

Works as a helping hand:

If we spend a certain amount of money for instance we invest in stocks, we assist the company’s business to expand. This will generate more jobs and will help the company to generate more profits. This results in improving jobs and helps to create a more progressive nation. Being financially stable gives us the opportunity to share our blessings with the poor. Helping others brings us an overwhelming feeling of fulfillment.

 

 

How co-working spaces can restart post lock down.

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How to invest in Insurance sector with tax planning.

How to invest in Insurance sector with tax planning.

 

Investment in insurance tools is a major part of everyone’s investment planning exercise. Although, it is important for people to be covered by certain risks, it is equally important that they buy insurance in which they accomplish their long term financial goals and helps them in tax planning. In recent years, the insurance sector has been at the forefront since the government opened it for private companies. Private insurers launched many new products and a healthy competition. This is good for investors because they have more options and a range of investments, but on the other hand it’s just as bad as it creates more uncertainty and the possibility of losing money occasionally.

 

All insurance products have their own pros and cons, so before making an investment decision investors should carefully understand all the aspects of the policy. Diversification and the development of a multi-product portfolio is one way to fix this challenging situation. Investors need to have knowledge of the various insurance products offered in the market and the positive or negative implications of these products. A stable insurance basket should contain Life Insurance cover, Medical Insurance cover, and Retirement/ Pension plans.

 

Life insurance:

The policy is available in 3 broad categories viz. endowment plans, life insurance plans, i.e. term plans and ULIPs. Endowment policies provide insurance and have some maturity returns. In this plan, maximum of the funds are invested in corporate bonds, Government securities, and various instruments from the money market. They deliver a healthy and stable return from 5% to 8%.

 

Term insurance is basically an insurance scheme. The premium covers the risk factor (mortality charges), revenue, and operating expenses in this package. This is why the premium paid for insurance policies is low as compared to the endowment plans. The premium charged in term insurance has no savings element and therefore no maturity benefits are paid to the individual.

 

Funds in the ULIPs scheme are mostly invested in the stock market and corporate bonds. The main distinction between ULIPs and standard insurance policies is the allocation of funds in stocks. These schemes pledge better maturity benefits, as stock markets have historically produced better returns over the long term. Nevertheless, investments in stocks are likely to lose money to a certain degree. Investors should opt for life insurance policies as soon as possible as age is one of the key determinants of the risk premium decision. As the income of an individual rises, they should increase their cover. It is normally said that the cover must be approximately 4 to 5 times of the annual income. An individual must fusion all three plans to limit the cash outflow and also to get the balance returns and reduce the risk.

 

 

Medical Insurance cover:

Medical compensation plans cover the massive medical expenses that occur in the care of an illness. As daily medical treatment is expensive, every person must have a medical insurance policy. Until accepting a policy, most health insurance plans do not cover chronic illnesses. It is therefore necessary to comprehend your medical policy in depth and invest early to offset the policy’s full grievances.

 

 

Future Provisions with Pension and retirement plans:

Insurance pension schemes offer life insurance to the investors when they are in the earning stage and monthly retirement benefits once they retire. ULPP is a type of pension plan where the funds are invested in market instruments. Investors can invest in ULPPs early, say at the age of 20, because they can afford to lose equity funds. Later, they can transfer their funds slowly into capital security schemes.

 

 

Tax planning:

While the majority think of tax planning as a process which reduces their tax liabilities, investing in the right instruments at the right time is also important in order to reach your financial goals as per your maturity period i.e. short, medium, and long. Basically, four different forms of tax planning exist.

 

 

Tax planning under Short Range:

It is a term used for tax preparation, which is used and conducted at the end of the financial year. Investors use this strategy to find ways to shrink their tax payments officially at the end of the financial year. Suppose if you decide at the end of the financial year that your taxes are high relative to the previous year, you might want to diminish it. Assessments can be done to get benefits under Section 88. Short-term tax planning does not require long-term obligations, though substantial tax savings can also be promoted.

 

Tax planning under Long Range:

The long range tax strategy is one that the taxpayer implements over the year. This policy does not provide immediate tax relief benefits as short-term plans do, but maybe beneficial in the long term. Typically you will begin investing at the start of the new financial year and continue to invest for a period of more than one year.

 

Tax planning under Permissive Measures:

Permissive tax planning means managing investments under different terms of India’s taxation legislation. There are various legal provisions in India that include exemptions, deductions, and benefits. Like Section 80C provides various types of exemption on tax savings investments.

 

Tax planning under Purposive Measures:

Purposive tax planning states planning of your investments for specific purposes thus ensuring that you can make the most of your investments. This includes the correct selection of investment instruments, the creation of an appropriate plan to substitute (if necessary), and Revenue and business assets diversification depending on your residential status.

In a nutshell, spending on Income tax is a moral and financial obligation which we all bear as citizens of India. The taxes we pay are used for our country’s growth. In a way, the taxes we pay are used for our benefit. According to the different income slabs, we each pay a different percentage of taxes, but all Indian people are entitled for the benefits equally.

 

 

 

Equity Right

How to choose the best mutual funds?

How to choose the best mutual funds?

 

Mutual fund is one of the best investment option for a regular investor, where investors can select and invest in a mutual fund scheme according to their financial goals and risk taking capability. However, an investor can directly invest or hire a mutual fund advisor. If an investor is investing directly, they will invest through direct plans of mutual fund scheme and if investor invests through a mutual fund advisor, they will invest in a regular plan of mutual fund scheme.

 

What are the various types of Mutual funds available to investors?

 

1. Equity mutual fund scheme – These funds are directly invested in stocks and returns depends on how these stocks perform over a period of time. These schemes give high returns but are very risky if invested for short term. Investors should invest for long term, at least for five to ten years. There are 10 types of equity mutual fund schemes available based on the capitalization and tenure such as Multi Cap funds, Large Cap funds, Large and Mid-cap funds, Mid Cap Funds, small cap funds, Dividend Yield Funds, Value Funds, Contra Funds, Focused Funds, Sectoral or thematic funds and Equity linked saving schemes (ELSS).

 

2. Debt mutual fund scheme – This MF scheme directly invests in Debt Securities. Investors who want to invest for short term i.e less than 5 years, should invest in these schemes. These schemes are less risky than equity schemes and provide modest returns. There are 16 debt mutual fund schemes based on tenure and returns such as Overnight Funds, Liquid Funds, Ultra short duration funds, low duration Funds, Money Market Funds, Short duration funds, Medium duration funds, Medium to long duration funds, Long duration Funds, Dynamic Bonds, Corporate bond funds, Credit Risk Funds, Banking and PSU funds, Gilt Funds, Gilt funds with ten years duration and Floater funds.

 

3. Hybrid mutual fund scheme – This scheme invests in debt and equity schemes. Investors can select these scheme based on their risk appetite. There are six hybrid mutual funds available based on the allocation and investment pattern such as Conservative hybrid Funds, Balanced Hybrid Funds, Aggressive hybrid Funds, Dynamic Asset Allocation, Multi Asset allocation, Arbitrage Funds and Equity Savings.

 

4. Solution oriented Scheme – These Schemes are especially for a particular solution or goal such as child’s education or retirement. However, they have mandatory lock in period of 5 years.

 

 

Mutual Fund Charges:

Total Expenses which a particular Mutual Fund incurred is known as Expense Ratio and this measures per unit cost of the funds managed. Generally, expense ratio is charged around 1.5 to 2.5 percent of the weekly (average) net asset of schemes.

 

 

How to select best Mutual Funds?

 

1. Know your financial goals and risk appetite – As an investor, one must first analyse his financial goals. Ask questions like, what they are looking for, short term or long term investment? Do they want to go for high risk, high return or low risk medium returns? For what purpose is money needed like retirement or any other specific purpose? Do they need money in near future? Or they want to invest for lock in period? By answering these questions, Investor will get a clear picture of their financial goals.

 

2. Compare the Expense RatioCost of owing some funds can be expensive so choose the lowest possible expense ratio. For example, if one fund has a cost of 0.50 percent while another has a cost of 1.5 percent as an expense ratio. Investors should choose according to the schemes and expense cost.

 

3. Avoid funds which have high turnoverIt is important to see turnover rate for funds, as it impacts the tax rate. It is basically a percentage of the portfolio that is brought and sold in a particular year. Usually, portfolio with more than 50 percent turnover carry higher tax rates.

 

4. Hire Disciplined Management Team – Fund manager should be selected on basis of the past record track and portfolio manager with high talent and experience team should be chosen.

 

5. Select No load Mutual FundThey are basically the fees, which are charged on assets (5% of assets usually). However, not all funds have charges. Investors should choose wisely, no load fund carry no charges and increases overall returns.

 

6. Check historical data and Diversify assets – investors should check historical data, reports and how they have evaluated them. Diversify whole portfolio, because in case an asset does not perform well due to some reasons, other asset class can balance them.

 

 

Some of the best mutual funds:

1. Nippon India US Equity Opportunities FundIt has an expense ratio of 1.5% and has given returns around 15% per annum in 5 years.

2. ICICI Prudential US Blue Chip Equity FundIts expense Ratio is 1.79% and returns of 13.81% Per annum in last 5 years.

3. DSP World Gold Fund – Expense Ratio 1.9% and Returns around 12.81% per annum.

 

 

Automakers come up with unique schemes to push sales.

Equity Rght

BSE, NSE cut listing fees for SMEs

BSE, NSE cut listing fees for SMEs

 

Due to COVID-19 pandemic, all the sectors have been affected badly but SMEs segments are affected the most. Therefore, during the announcements of details of Rs 20 lakh crore stimulus package, Finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman made special announcements related to MSMEs.

 

Reduction in listing fees:

Now to support SMEs and MSMEs, Indian stock exchanges BSE and NSE came forward. They have relaxed listing norms and reduced listing fee for small and medium enterprises by 25%. However, this norms are applicable to both existing and new firms which are looking forward to list on BSE SME platform and NSE SME platform.

 

What are the Current charges?

Currently for SMEs, Rs 25,000 or 0.1 percent of market capitalization of firm is the listing fee charged by BSE. The NSE charges around Rs 10,000 to Rs 45,000, depending on the SME firms market capitalization. Until now, BSE has 322 small and medium companies listed and has raised around Rs 3,278.84 crore from the market. Their market capitalisation is of Rs 15,865.39 crore so far. On the other side, so far only 209 small and medium companies are listed on NSE and have raised over Rs 3,200 crore.

 

What measures have been announced by government?

Due to the covid-19 lock down, many industries are facing problems like job losses and are cash strapped. During this situation, the main concern for MSMEs is that they are not able to restart their operations due to supply issues and non-availability of labour. Last week, while making announcement for packages in tranches, government changed the definition for MSMEs and linked it to the turnover limits of the companies so that their businesses grow with benefits. They announced measures for MSMEs and Rs 3 lakh crore package for collateral free automatic loans with separate funds for equity support.

However, these Rs 3 lakh crore will also be useful for existing borrowers who have over Rs 100 crore turnover and Rs 25 crore outstanding. Fresh loans can be taken by companies up to 20% of their outstanding. These loans have tenure of 4 years, with moratorium repayment period of 12 months. However, the government will also give them credit guarantee of 100 percent which will cover interest and principal to banking and non-banking institutions. Government will give around Rs 4,000 crore funds to Credit Guarantee Fund Trust for Micro and Small Enterprises (CGFTMSE) with partial credit guarantee to banks. However for expansion of MSMEs, the government will provide corpus of Rs 10,000 crore so that they can also list after expansion.

 

Further Expectations:

Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) are very cautious while taking any kind of fresh loans, as they are not sure about the demands for their products after all activity resumes. Most of the micro, small and medium businesses and enterprises are expecting from the government, to give them direct relief by waiving their electricity bills and other fixed expenditure such as payment of salaries. However, banks have already reduced their loans such as credit limit. Anil Bhardwaj, Secretary general of federation of Indian micro, small & medium enterprises (FISME) said, for all the small business and enterprises, government will take care of their fixed expenses. MSME industry has three major demand, interest payments, easy access to loans and payments of salaries from the government, during this situation due to COVID-19 lock down.

 

 

FPIs exit markets after economic package announcement.

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FPIs exit markets after economic package announcement.

FPIs exit markets after economic package announcement.

 

On 12th May 2020, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced an economic package of ₹ 20 lakh crore under government’s Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan / Self-Reliant India. The national movement of Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan / Self-Reliant India initiated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi is to support India’s all small and local business. He emphasized on slogan viz. #VOCALFORLOCAL.

 

Scamper among FPIs:

Approximately 40% of FPI sales in cash and derivatives sectors were observed in second week of May. The data derived from stock exchange indicates some break up figures such as FPI’s sold stock worth ₹6,486 crore. Additionally, sales worth ₹2,869 crore and ₹737 crore were observed in index futures and stock futures respectively. These sales was executed in just 4 trading days in the second week of May 2020. The data further states that since the announcement of economic booster package of worth ₹20 lakh crore, FPIs buying activity has drastically declined.

 

Decline in NIFTY:

On 13th May 2020, Nifty observed its peak of 9,584 within the span of 2 days. Nifty abruptly fell by 534 points and on 15th May 2020 Nifty observed its low of 9,050. In the same time period, it has also been observed that there is a sudden decline in Nifty Bank. Nifty Bank dropped 1,440 points from 20,122 to 18,663.

If we compare between Indian stock market and global stock market, the sudden change is only observed in Indian stock market and not in global stock market. The Nifty and Nifty Bank indices are two of India’s largest traded derivatives, and both of these derivatives are struggling under pressure from FPI’s as they are selling their investment in a massive quantity since the announcement of economic booster package by Indian government. In second week of May 2020, the indices decreased by 5.6% and 7.15% respectively, compared to their respective highs.

 

Support from DII’s:

During the same period i.e. in the second week of May, there was no support from Domestic institutional investors (DIIs). Purchases from domestic institutional investors (DIIs) was also low, and they purchased stocks of only ₹1,896 crore in cash. There are several rules and restrictions on the companies who are doing business of mutual funds & insurance on derivative speculations. Therefore, they are virtually absent in the field of futures and options.

 

Massive sales by FPIs:

The media report noted that FPIs have been selling massively since the second week of May 2020 and have been slamming markets after the announcement of the financial package by Indian Government. In addition, the figures apart from second week of May 2020, the FPI’s net figures appear to be clearly positive, this is a bit misleading.

 

Loopholes while extracting data:

Exchanges will not adapt these facts when foreign companies sell shares and FPIs buy them This was the case on 7th May 2020, when a massive block of shares entered the market of Hindustan Unilever (HUL). Shares of HUL worth ₹26,300 crore were sold by international investors on 7th May 2020. The FPI’s bought a total worth ₹19,000 crore from the market in the same period, while DIIs bought stocks from the market in the same period worth ₹3,818 crore. Nearly all FPI’s and DIIs purchases were in HUL for that particular period.

When these ₹19,000 crore investments are removed from Hindustan Unilever shares, then FPI’s were net sellers in the cash and future segments. Sellers and major buyers of HUL were both international entities, but only those registered as FPIs are required to report their numbers to Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) and stock exchanges viz. NSE & BSE. Meanwhile, net buying by DIIs in the month of May 2020 is just ₹1,056 crore after adjusting the activity of Hindustan Unilever.

 

 

Corporate bond funds: A mix of risks and returns.

Equity Rght

Mutual funds make limited borrowing from RBI's credit lines

Mutual funds make limited borrowing from RBI’s credit lines

 

Schemes closed by Franklin Templeton Mutual Funds:

Franklin Templeton Mutual Fund’s has decided to wind up their 6 debt schemes from 23rd April, 2020. The 6 schemes closed by Franklin Templeton Mutual Fund’s was worth ₹26,000 crore. The closure of these 6 schemes significantly reduced liquidity in the Indian bond market. Money of many retail investors and High Net worth Individuals (HNI’s) is blocked as there will be no option of liquidity available in their portfolios. Executives from Franklin Templeton Mutual Funds noted lock down outbreak of COVID-19 and the lock down imposed in state compelled them to take this decision. To control the uncertainty in the financial market, RBI launched new provisions to tackle this problem.

 

Reserve Bank of India launched special liquidity facility:

In late April 2020, Reserve Bank of India launched a special liquidity facility for mutual funds (SLF-MF). This special facility states a provision of total corpus of ₹50,000 crore is available and Mutual funds can borrow money through banks. The functioning will be, corpus of ₹50,000 crore is available and banks are allowed to borrow money from Reserve Bank of India for maximum 90 days. They can lend money to mutual fund firms by keeping collateral of their portfolio. Once the time span of 90 days elapses, the lender needs to pack back the money and take their collaterals. Further, banks will return money to the Central bank. Reserve Bank of India noted this facility can be availed by a bank only for lending back to Mutual funds.

 

Limited borrowing from RBI’s special liquidity facility:

The special liquidity facility provided by Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to mutual funds did not observe massive utilization. The utilization was only ₹2,430 crore from the total ₹50,000 crore window. Media reports noted, rather than lending money from bank, mutual fund’s preferred selling securities to bank and to their other parties. As mutual funds preferred to sell securities to the banks and other counter parties, this shown a spike in sales of debt papers of some NBFC’s.

 

Redemption of debt funds:

Media reports noted the special liquidity facility provided by Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to mutual funds has controlled the redemption of debt funds. In March 2020, various debt funds shown massive outflow. Due to this pandemic, a huge amount of redemption in debt funds is observed. In March 2020, there was a massive outflow in open-ended Debt funds of ₹1,94,915 crore. However, in the month of April 2020 the outflow continued, but inflow of ₹43,432 crore was executed.

In April 2020, it was observed that redemption in credit risk funds was ₹19,238.98 crore. Low duration fund also observed redemption of total ₹9,841.07 crore in the month of April. Further redemptions in various schemes like Ultra Short Duration fund, Money market fund, Short Duration fund amounted to ₹3,419.32 crore, ₹1,210.35 crore, ₹2,309.05 crore respectively.

 

Ease in NBFC’s sector:

The national movement of Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan / Self-Reliant India initiated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi is to support India’s all small and local businesses. Finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced economic booster package of ₹20 crore under government’s Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan / Self-Reliant India to fight against COVID-19. The economic booster package of ₹20 crore includes new provision to aid NBFC sector. Non-banking financial companies (NBFCs), Microfinance institutions (MFIs) and Housing finance companies (HFCs) will get liquidity support of ₹30,000 crore under liquidity scheme. Under this scheme, banks can invest in investment-grade debt papers issued by NBFCs through both primary and secondary market transactions. The investment up to ₹30,000 crore will be entirely guaranteed by the Government of India.

Additionally, NBFCs, MFIs, and HFCs will even get the assistance of ₹45,000 crore under partial guarantee scheme. This assistance provided by government is to provide liquidity support to the institutions whose credit rating is low. This will be applicable for all the unrated papers and the papers with ratings of AA and below issued by NBFCs, MFIs, and HFCs. This will enhance the liquidity support of all the institutions under NBFCs, MFIs, and HFCs. Under this scheme, the first 20% loss will be borne by the Indian government i.e. public sector banks resulting in a liquidity of ₹45,000 crore.

 

 

Bond markets hail G-sec auction

Equity Right

Bond markets hail G-sec auction

Bond markets hail G-sec auction

What are Government Securities (G-Sec)?

A Government Security, commonly known as G-Sec is a debt instrument. These are issued either by Central or State Government and are tradeable instruments. The Central Government issues both, treasury charges otherwise called T-bills and bonds or dated protections while the State issues just bonds or dated protections, which are known as the State Development Loans (SDLs). These are backed up by the Government and hence are also known as risk-free investments. 

 

T-bills:

T-bills are of three types. Categorized on the basis of maturity period they are 91 days, 182 days, and 364 days. They do not carry any interest rate. They are issued at a discount to their true (PAR) value and redeemed at true (PAR) value.

 

Bonds:

Bonds differ from T-bills in two ways. They are long term and have no fixed tenure. They vary depending upon their issue. They pay interest semi annually.
Every bond issued is given a unique name or symbol. The symbol contains all the information defining the instrument. For example, let us consider “662GS2025A”, is a central government bond. If this is decoded, we get to know the bond has an annualized interest of 6.62%, which will be paid semi annually as 3.31%  GS stands for type of security that is Government Securities (GS). 2025 indicates the year in which this bond will attain maturity. Finally upon maturity, the principle amount will be received. ‘A’ means it is a fresh issue. This is how the nomenclature of the bond is read.

 

Impact of additional borrowings on G-sec:

The announcement of government borrowings Rs 34,000 crore instead of the predetermined amount of Rs 30,000 crore, witnesses a positive upswing in the minds of investors. The very 1st auction, dated May 15, 2020 after the news of additional Governmental borrowing of Rs 4,000 crore was out, has seen a great response from the bond market. This announcement from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is resulting in spreading positivity in the bond market.

 

The auction response:

The auction that was held on May 15, auctioned three government bonds. These three bonds will mature in the year 2024, 2033 and 2050 respectively. Collectively, these three bonds intend to raise aggregate money amounting to Rs 30,000 crore. After analyzing the auction response, bonds having maturity in 2033 has been responded with bids around Rs 33,000 crore whereas the notified amount being Rs 11,000 crore. Similarly, bonds having maturity in 2050 has been responded with bids around Rs 21,000 crore whereas the notified amount being Rs 7,000 crore. This implies that above papers have been applied for three times the notified amounts. This is a bullish scenario which is getting reflected by the number of bids in the auction of the Government bonds. The cut-off returns also aligned with the expectations of the market. On the same day, returns on the new benchmark bonds secured 5.78%.

 

What can be the reason behind this optimistic shift?

Maybe, the reason behind this optimistic shift in the market is because of certain expectations from the RBI. Market is expecting RBI to announce certain measures with respect to the additional Governmental borrowing of Rs 4,000 crore which may benefit all. Another reason could be that the market believes that even though the Government has announced Rs 20 lakh crore as the fiscal package, the total cash outflow will not amount to entire amount specified, rather it will be much lower. Maybe the outflow stays within the limits of additional borrowings that has been announced. The first week of February brought an announcement that estimated borrowings for FY21 has been raised to Rs 12 lakh crore. This has led to an additional borrowing by Rs 4.2 lakh crore which is to be borrowed this year.

Market expects RBI to go for open market operation (OMO) purchases. OMO purchases of at least Rs 3 lakh crore while keeping in mind the principle of conservatism. If these prove to be strong indicators of the reasons behind market being optimistic presently, then in case the above mentioned reasons fails or faces unexpected delay, the market may swing in total opposite direction altogether. This implies it is the hope of the market that is gripping the market and making it act positive. Data from May 15, 2020 reveals that RBI has been buying securities and major portion of it is expected to be the Treasury bills. Further, these have been brought through OMO purchases amounting to Rs 1.2 lakh crore starting from April 2020.

 

 

Negative crude oil price leads to multiple legal battles

Equity Right

What are liquid funds? Find more

What are liquid funds? Find more

Liquid funds are also debt funds that lend for a period of up to 91 days. These are the safest funds among all other schemes, being short-term. It is appropriate for putting money aside for emergencies. There is negligible risk of loss if one invests for minimum one month. These are known for giving up to 50% and at times even 100% higher returns than the savings bank account. These have low annual fee ranging from 0.30%- 0.70%

 

Portfolio with liquid funds fetches:

No Lock-in Period – By the name, it suggests they have no lock-in period and give quick access to cash by redemption.

Quick Withdrawals – Liquid fund withdrawals can be made within 24 hours.

Lowest Interest Rate Risk – These funds mainly invest in fixed income securities which have a short maturity period, hence have one of the lowest rate risk as compared to others.

Tax Benefits – Liquid Funds offer valuable tax benefits.

Comparatively Good Returns – Liquid funds offer an average return of about 8% per annum.

For instance,

Franklin India Liquid Fund is presently giving a return of +7.04% p.a.

Tata Liquid Fund is presently giving a return of +6.91% p.a.

Edelweiss Liquid Fund is presently giving a return of +6.86% p.a.

 

 

Comparing and Contrasting:

Current Fixed Deposit Rates are ranging from 3.00%-6.75% p.a. covering all classes of investors.

Comparing these with the previously mentioned Credit Risk Fund and Liquid Fund, we can learn that these funds give more returns as compared to the Bank FDs.

 

 

Credit risk funds. Should you invest?

 

 

Equity Right

Credit risk funds. Should you invest?

Credit risk funds. Should you invest?

Credit risk funds are debt funds that lend not less than 65% of their portfolio in the lower rated instruments (less than AA rated papers). The borrowers have to shell out higher interest charges to compensate for their lower credit rating, which translates into a higher risk for the lender due to an increased possibility of default. Although, these funds lend mostly for short duration. They are still one of the riskiest in the category.

These funds are ideal for an investment horizon of at least 3-5 years. There is a high probability of incurring losses if held for short term.These funds tend to deliver higher returns than Bank Fixed Deposits thereby involving higher risk.

 

Portfolio with Credit Risk Funds fetches:

Higher Return : These funds take high risks and invest that money in the low risk instruments and the returns generated are higher as compared to other funds.

Tax Benefits: These funds are tax-efficient as the Long Term Capital Gains (LTCG) is flat 20% where as if the assessee is in 30% slab still LTCG will be taxable at 20%.

Extended Supervision: In these funds, fund managers play a very significant role in obtaining remarkable returns. Credit rating alone is not the only basis of decision making. There are various parameters such as the company’s scope of expansion, its potential and business model.

For instance,

ICICI Prudential Credit Risk Fund is presently giving return of +8.64% p.a.

Kotak Credit Risk Fund is presently giving return of +7.44% p.a

HDFC Credit Risk Fund is presently giving return of +7.55% p.a

 

 

Debt, hybrid mutual funds see large outflows in April